Durch

Durch Beispiele aus dem PONS Wörterbuch (redaktionell geprüft)

Definition, Rechtschreibung, Synonyme und Grammatik von 'durch' auf Duden online nachschlagen. Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache. Worttrennung: durch. Aussprache: IPA: [dʊʁç]: Hörbeispiele: Lautsprecherbild durch. Übersetzung Deutsch-Englisch für durch im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. boifrankrike.se | Übersetzungen für 'durch' im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen, Beugungsformen. durch (Deutsch). Wortart: Präposition. Silbentrennung: durch. Aussprache/​Betonung: IPA: [dʊʁç]. Wortbedeutung/Definition: 1) in etwas hinein und auf der​.

durch

Worttrennung: durch. Aussprache: IPA: [dʊʁç]: Hörbeispiele: Lautsprecherbild durch. durch Präp. +Akk. thru Präp. - informal, simplified spelling of "through" (Amer. Definition, Rechtschreibung, Synonyme und Grammatik von 'durch' auf Duden online nachschlagen. Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache. Adverb durch Gold gedeckt durch Wertpapiere unterlegtes Geldgeschäft. Please do leave them untouched. Die gesammelten Vokabeln werden bee vang "Vokabelliste" angezeigt. Ein Beispiel aus dem Internet. I'm through with the https://boifrankrike.se/filme-online-schauen-stream/my-name-is-earl-bs.php paper ugs. Kontamination von Redewendungen. Wenn Sie die Vokabeln in den Vokabeltrainer übernehmen möchten, klicken Sie in der Vokabelliste einfach auf "Vokabeln übertragen". If you drive from the East to the Bryce Canyon, you should definitely take the 12 through Boulder and Escalante. Durch Bedeutung Diesem Synonym wurde eine nicht korrekte Bedeutung zugeordnet. Es gibt im Wesentlichen zwei verschiedene Arten der Beschaffung visit web page Einerseits durch finanzielle Beihilfen Mittel von der GDF zur Verfügung gestellt und andererseits direkt finanzierte Beschaffungen finanziert article source anderen Gebern.

Its closest relative is the mutually intelligible daughter language, Afrikaans. Dutch stands out in combining some Ingvaeonic characteristics occurring consistently in English and Frisian and reduced in intensity from west to east over the continental West Germanic plane with dominant Istvaeonic characteristics, some of which are also incorporated in German.

Unlike German, Dutch apart from Limburgish has not been influenced at all by the south to north movement of the High German consonant shift and had some changes of its own.

For a comparison between the West Germanic languages, see the sections Morphology, Grammar and Vocabulary. Dutch dialects are primarily the dialects that are both related with the Dutch language and are spoken in the same language area as the Dutch standard language.

Although heavily under the influence of the standard language, some of them remain remarkably diverse and are found in the Netherlands and northern Belgium.

The areas in which they are spoken often correspond with former mediaeval counties and duchies. The Netherlands but not Belgium distinguishes between a dialect and a streektaal " regional language ".

Those words are actually more political than linguistic because a regional language unites a large group of very different varieties. Such is the case with the Gronings dialect , which is considered a variety of the Dutch Low Saxon regional language, but it is relatively distinct from other Dutch Low Saxon varieties.

Also, some Dutch dialects are more remote from the Dutch standard language than some varieties of a regional language are.

Within the Netherlands, a further distinction is made between a regional language and a separate language, which is the case with the standardised West Frisian language.

It is spoken alongside Dutch in the province of Friesland. Dutch dialects and regional languages are not spoken as often as they used to be, especially in the Netherlands.

Recent research by Geert Driessen shows that the use of dialects and regional languages among both Dutch adults and youth is in heavy decline.

In , 27 percent of the Dutch adult population spoke a dialect or regional language on a regular basis, but in , that was no more than 11 percent.

In , 12 percent of children of primary school age spoke a dialect or regional language, but in , that had declined to 4 percent.

Dialects are most often spoken in rural areas, but many cities have a distinct city dialect. For example, the city of Ghent has very distinct "g", "e" and "r" sounds that greatly differ from its surrounding villages.

The Brussels dialect combines Brabantian with words adopted from Walloon and French. Some dialects had, until recently, extensions across the borders of other standard language areas.

In most cases, the heavy influence of the standard language has broken the dialect continuum. Examples are the Gronings dialect spoken in Groningen as well as the closely related varieties in adjacent East Frisia Germany.

Limburgish Limburgs is spoken in Limburg Belgium as well as in the remaining part of Limburg Netherlands and extends across the German border.

West Flemish Westvlaams is spoken in West Flanders , the western part of Zeelandic Flanders and also in French Flanders , where it virtually became extinct to make way for French.

The West Flemish group of dialects, spoken in West Flanders and Zeeland , is so distinct that it might be considered as a separate language variant, although the strong significance of language in Belgian politics would prevent the government from classifying them as such.

An oddity of the dialect is that, the voiced velar fricative written as "g" in Dutch shifts to a voiced glottal fricative written as "h" in Dutch , while the letter "h" becomes mute just like in French.

As a result, when West Flemings try to talk Standard Dutch, they're often unable to pronounce the g-sound, and pronounce it similar to the h-sound.

This leaves, for example, no difference between "held" hero and "geld" money. Or in some cases, they are aware of the problem, and hyper-correct the "h" into a voiced velar fricative or g-sound, again leaving no difference.

The West Flemish variety historically spoken in adjacent parts in France is sometimes called French Flemish and is listed as a French minority language , however only a very small and aging minority of the French-Flemish population still speaks and understands West Flemish.

Hollandic is spoken in Holland and Utrecht , though the original forms of this dialect which were heavily influenced by a West Frisian substratum and, from the 16th century on, by Brabantian dialects are now relatively rare.

The urban dialects of the Randstad , which are Hollandic dialects, do not diverge from standard Dutch very much, but there is a clear difference between the city dialects of Rotterdam , The Hague , Amsterdam and Utrecht.

In some rural Hollandic areas more authentic Hollandic dialects are still being used, especially north of Amsterdam.

Another group of dialects based on Hollandic is that spoken in the cities and larger towns of Friesland , where it partially displaced West Frisian in the 16th century and is known as Stadsfries "Urban Frisian".

Brabantian is named after the historical Duchy of Brabant , which corresponded mainly to the provinces of North Brabant and southern Gelderland , the Belgian provinces of Antwerp and Flemish Brabant , as well as Brussels where its native speakers have become a minority and the province of Walloon Brabant.

Brabantian expands into small parts in the west of Limburg while its strong influence on the East Flemish of East Flanders and eastern Zeelandic Flanders [36] weakens towards the west.

In a small area in the northwest of North Brabant Willemstad , Hollandic is spoken. Conventionally, the South Guelderish dialects are distinguished from Brabantian, but there are no objective criteria apart from geography to do so.

Over 5 million people live in an area with some form of Brabantian being the predominant colloquial language out of the area's 22 million Dutch-speakers.

Limburgish , spoken in both Belgian Limburg and Netherlands Limburg and in adjacent parts in Germany, is considered a dialect in Belgium, while having obtained the official status of regional language in the Netherlands.

Limburgish has been influenced by the Ripuarian varieties like the Colognian dialect , and has had a somewhat different development since the late Middle Ages.

Two dialect groups have been given the official status of regional language or streektaal in the Netherlands. Like several other dialect groups, both are part of a dialect continuum that continues across the national border.

This group, which is not Low Franconian but instead Low Saxon and close to neighbouring Low German, has been elevated by the Netherlands and by Germany to the legal status of streektaal regional language according to the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.

It is regarded as Dutch for a number of reasons. From the 14th to 15th century onward, its urban centers Deventer , Zwolle , Kampen , Zutphen and Doesburg have been increasingly influenced by the western written Dutch and became a linguistically mixed area.

From the 17th century onward, it was gradually integrated into the Dutch language area. However, the national border has given way to dialect boundaries coinciding with a political border, because the traditional dialects are strongly influenced by the national standard varieties.

While a somewhat heterogeneous group of Low Franconian dialects, Limburgish has received official status as a regional language in the Netherlands and Germany, but not in Belgium.

Due to this official recognition, it receives protection by chapter 2 of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.

Afrikaans , although to a significant degree mutually intelligible with Dutch, is not a dialect but a separate standardised language.

It is spoken in South Africa and Namibia. As a daughter language of Dutch, Afrikaans evolved mainly from 17th century Dutch dialects, but was influenced by various other languages in South Africa.

Anglo-Frisian and are therefore genetically more closely related to English and Scots than to Dutch. The different influences on the respective languages, however, particularly that of Norman French on English and Dutch on West Frisian, have rendered English quite distinct from West Frisian, and West Frisian less distinct from Dutch than from English.

Although under heavy influence of the Dutch standard language, it is not mutually intelligible with Dutch and considered a sister language of Dutch, like English and German.

Approximate distribution of native Dutch speakers assuming a rounded total of 24 million worldwide. Dutch is also an official language of several international organisations, such as the European Union , [51] Union of South American Nations [52] and the Caribbean Community.

At an academic level, Dutch is taught in about universities in 40 countries. About 15, students worldwide study Dutch at university.

Though Belgium as a whole is multilingual, the four language areas into which the country is divided Flanders , francophone Wallonia , bilingual Brussels and the German-speaking Community are largely monolingual.

The Netherlands and Belgium produce the vast majority of music , films , books and other media written or spoken in Dutch.

Indeed, in stark contrast to its written uniformity, Dutch lacks a unique prestige dialect and has a large dialectal continuum consisting of 28 main dialects, which can themselves be further divided into at least distinguishable varieties.

Outside the Netherlands and Belgium, the dialect around the German town of Kleve South Guelderish is historically and genetically a Low Franconian variety.

In North-Western France, the area around Calais was historically Dutch-speaking West Flemish , of which an estimated 20, are daily speakers.

The cities of Dunkirk , Gravelines and Bourbourg only became predominantly French-speaking by the end of the 19th century. In the countryside, until World War I , many elementary schools continued to teach in Dutch, and the Catholic Church continued to preach and teach the catechism in Dutch in many parishes.

During the second half of the 19th century, Dutch was banned from all levels of education by both Prussia and France and lost most of its functions as a cultural language.

In both Germany and France, the Dutch standard language is largely absent, and speakers of these Dutch dialects will use German or French in everyday speech.

Dutch is not afforded legal status in France or Germany, either by the central or regional public authorities, and knowledge of the language is declining among younger generations.

As a foreign language , Dutch is mainly taught in primary and secondary schools in areas adjacent to the Netherlands and Flanders.

In French-speaking Belgium , over , pupils are enrolled in Dutch courses, followed by over 23, in the German states of Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia , and about 7, in the French region of Nord-Pas-de-Calais of which 4, are in primary school.

Each year, some 1, to 2, students take Dutch courses there. Many universities therefore include Dutch as a source language, mainly for law and history students.

Unlike other European nations, the Dutch chose not to follow a policy of language expansion amongst the indigenous peoples of their colonies.

Dutch, the language of power, was supposed to remain in the hands of the leading elite. After independence, Dutch was dropped as an official language and replaced by Malay.

Yet the Indonesian language inherited many words from Dutch: words for everyday life as well as scientific and technological terms.

In addition, many Indonesian words are calques of Dutch; for example, rumah sakit "hospital" is calqued on the Dutch ziekenhuis literally "sickhouse" , kebun binatang "zoo" on dierentuin literally "animal garden" , undang-undang dasar "constitution" from grondwet literally "ground law".

These account for some of the differences in vocabulary between Indonesian and Malay. Dutch-speaking immigrant communities can also be found in Australia and New Zealand.

The Australian census showed 37, people speaking Dutch at home. In contrast to the colonies in the East Indies , from the second half of the 19th century onwards, the Netherlands envisaged the expansion of Dutch in its colonies in the West Indies.

Until , when slavery was abolished in the West Indies, slaves were forbidden to speak Dutch, with the effect that local creoles such as Papiamento and Sranan Tongo which were based not on Dutch but rather other European languages, became common in the Dutch West Indies.

However, as most of the people in the Colony of Surinam now Suriname worked on Dutch plantations, this reinforced the use of Dutch as a means for direct communication.

In the United States, a now extinct dialect of Dutch, Jersey Dutch , spoken by descendants of 17th-century Dutch settlers in Bergen and Passaic counties, was still spoken as late as Pennsylvania Dutch is not a member of the set of Dutch dialects and is less misleadingly called Pennsylvania German.

President whose first language was not English. Dutch prevailed for many generations as the dominant language in parts of New York along the Hudson River.

Another famous American born in this region who spoke Dutch as a first language was Sojourner Truth.

According to the United States census , , people spoke Dutch at home, [83] while according to the Canadian census , this number reaches , Dutch speakers.

The largest legacy of the Dutch language lies in South Africa, which attracted large numbers of Dutch, Flemish and other northwest European farmer in Dutch, boer settlers, all of whom were quickly assimilated.

European Dutch remained the literary language [88] until the start of the s, when under pressure of Afrikaner nationalism the local "African" Dutch was preferred over the written, European-based standard.

Both languages are still largely mutually intelligible, although this relation can in some fields such as lexicon, spelling and grammar be asymmetric, as it is easier for Dutch speakers to understand written Afrikaans than it is for Afrikaans speakers to understand written Dutch.

The Dutch colonial presence elsewhere in Africa, notably Dutch Gold Coast , was too ephemeral not to be wiped out by prevailing colonizing European successors.

For further details on different realisations of phonemes, dialectal differences and example words, see the full article at Dutch phonology.

Unlike other Germanic languages, Dutch doesn't have phonological aspiration of consonants. Dutch also retains full use of the velar fricatives that were present in Proto-Germanic , but lost or modified in many other Germanic languages.

Dutch has final-obstruent devoicing : at the end of a word, voicing distinction is neutralised and all obstruents are pronounced voiceless.

Like English, Dutch did not develop i-mutation as a morphological marker and shares with most Germanic languages the lengthening of short vowels in stressed open syllables , which has led to contrastive vowel length that is used as a morphological marker.

Dutch has an extensive vowel inventory. Vowels can be grouped as back rounded, front unrounded and front rounded.

They are also traditionally distinguished by length or tenseness. Vowel length is not always considered a distinctive feature in Dutch phonology, because it normally co-occurs with changes in vowel quality.

One feature or the other may be considered redundant, and some phonemic analyses prefer to treat it as an opposition of tenseness. The changes in vowel quality are also not always the same in all dialects, and in some there may be little difference at all, with length remaining the primary distinguishing feature.

And while it is true that older words always pair vowel length with a change in vowel quality, new loanwords have reintroduced phonemic oppositions of length.

All three are commonly the only ones considered unique phonemes in Dutch. They are grouped here by their first element. There are words that end in four consonants, e.

A notable change in pronunciation has been occurring in younger generations in the provinces of Utrecht , North and South Holland , which has been dubbed "Polder Dutch" by Jan Stroop.

This change is interesting from a sociolinguistic point of view because it has apparently happened relatively recently, in the s, and was pioneered by older well-educated women from the upper middle classes.

Stroop theorizes that the lowering of open-mid to open diphthongs is a phonetically "natural" and inevitable development and that Dutch, after having diphthongised the long high vowels like German and English, "should" have lowered the diphthongs like German and English as well.

Instead, he argues, this development has been artificially frozen in an "intermediate" state by the standardisation of Dutch pronunciation in the 16th century, where lowered diphthongs found in rural dialects were perceived as ugly by the educated classes and accordingly declared substandard.

Now, however, in his opinion, the newly affluent and independent women can afford to let that natural development take place in their speech.

Stroop compares the role of Polder Dutch with the urban variety of British English pronunciation called Estuary English.

Among Belgian and Surinamese Dutch speakers and speakers from other regions in the Netherlands, this vowel shift is not taking place.

Dutch is grammatically similar to German , such as in syntax and verb morphology for a comparison of verb morphology in English, Dutch and German, see Germanic weak verb and Germanic strong verb.

Grammatical cases have largely fallen out of use and are now mostly limited to pronouns and a large number of set phrases. Inflected forms of the articles are also often found in surnames and toponyms.

Standard Dutch uses three genders to differentiate between natural gender and three when discerning grammatical gender.

But for most non-Belgian speakers, the masculine and feminine genders have merged to form the common gender de , while the neuter het remains distinct as before.

This gender system is similar to those of most Continental Scandinavian languages. As in English, but to a lesser degree, the inflectional grammar of the language e.

When grouped according to their conjugational class, Dutch has four main verb types: weak verbs , strong verbs , irregular verbs and mixed verbs.

In weak verbs, the past tense and past participle are formed with a dental suffix:. Strong verbs are the second most numerous verb group.

This group is characterised by a vowel alternation of the stem in the past tense and perfect participle. Dutch distinguishes between 7 classes of strong verbs with some internal variants.

Dutch is known for its large group of 'half strong verbs' these have either a weak past tense and a strong participle or a strong past tense and a weak participle.

Finally there are also strong verbs that don't neatly fit in any of the seven classes. The following table shows the vowel alternations in more detail.

It also shows the number of roots bare verbs that belong to each class, variants with a prefix are excluded.

As in English, the case system of Dutch and the subjunctive have largely fallen out of use, and the system has generalised the dative over the accusative case for certain pronouns NL: me , je ; EN: me , you ; LI: mi , di vs.

Modern Dutch has mostly lost its case system. The article has just two forms, de and het , more complex than English, which has only the.

The use of the older inflected form den in the dative and accusative, as well as use of der in the dative, is restricted to numerous set phrases, surnames and toponyms.

In modern Dutch, the genitive articles des and der are commonly used in idioms. Other usage is typically considered archaic, poetic or stylistic.

In most circumstances, the preposition van is instead used, followed by the normal definitive article de or het. For the idiomatic use of the articles in the genitive, see for example:.

In contemporary usage, the genitive case still occurs a little more often with plurals than with singulars, as the plural article is der for all genders and no special noun inflection must be taken account of.

Der is commonly used in order to avoid reduplication of van , e. Although usually avoided in common speech, this form can be used instead of possessive pronouns to avoid confusion.

Analogically, the relative and interrogative pronoun wie "who" has the genitive forms wiens and wier corresponding to English whose , but less frequent in use.

Dutch also has a range of fixed expressions that make use of the genitive articles, which can be abbreviated using apostrophes.

Common examples include "'s ochtends" with 's as abbreviation of des ; "in the morning" and desnoods lit: "of the need", translated: "if necessary".

The Dutch written grammar has simplified over the past years: cases are now mainly used for the pronouns, such as ik I , mij, me me , mijn my , wie who , wiens whose: masculine or neuter singular , wier whose: feminine singular; masculine, feminine or neuter plural.

Nouns and adjectives are not case inflected except for the genitive of proper nouns names : -s, -'s or -'. In the spoken language cases and case inflections had already gradually disappeared from a much earlier date on probably the 15th century as in many continental West Germanic dialects.

Inflection of adjectives is more complicated. This was also the case in Middle English, as in "a good e man".

An adjective has no e if it is in the predicative : De soep is koud. More complex inflection is still found in certain lexicalized expressions like de heer de s hui zes literally, "the man of the house" , etc.

These are usually remnants of cases in this instance, the genitive case which is still used in German, cf.

Der Herr des Hauses and other inflections no longer in general use today. In such lexicalized expressions remnants of strong and weak nouns can be found too, e.

Also in this case, German retains this feature. Dutch shares much of its word order with German. Dutch exhibits subject—object—verb word order, but in main clauses the conjugated verb is moved into the second position in what is known as verb second or V2 word order.

This makes Dutch word order almost identical to that of German, but often different from English, which has subject—verb—object word order and has since lost the V2 word order that existed in Old English.

An example sentence used in some Dutch language courses and textbooks is " Ik kan mijn pen niet vinden omdat het veel te donker is ", which translates into English word for word as " I can my pen not find because it far too dark is ", but in standard English word order would be written " I cannot find my pen because it is far too dark ".

If the sentence is split into a main and subclause and the verbs highlighted, the logic behind the word order can be seen. Verbs are placed in the final position, but the conjugated verb, in this case "kan" can , is made the second element of the clause.

In an interrogative main clause the usual word order is: conjugated verb followed by subject; other verbs in final position:. In a tag question the word order is the same as in a declarative clause:.

In Dutch, the diminutive is used extensively. The nuances of meaning expressed by the diminutive are a distinctive aspect of Dutch, and can be difficult for non-native speakers to master.

It is very productive [] : 61 and formed by adding one of the suffixes to the noun in question, depending on the latter's phonological ending:.

The diminutive suffixes -ke from which -tje has derived by palatalization , -eke , -ske , -ie only for words ending -ch, -k, -p, or -s , -kie instead of -kje , and -pie instead of -pje are used in southern dialects, and the forms ending on -ie as well in northern urban dialects.

The noun joch young boy has, exceptionally, only the diminutive form jochie, also in standard Dutch. The former take a diminutive ending and thus function as nouns, the latter remain adverbs and always have the diminutive with the -s appended, e.

A few nouns exist solely in a diminutive form, e. Some diminutive forms only exist in the plural, e. When used to refer to time, the Dutch diminutive form can indicate whether the person in question found it pleasant or not: een uur tje kletsen chatting for a "little" hour.

The diminutive can, however, also be used pejoratively: Hij was weer eens het "mannetje". He acted as if he was the "little" man.

There are two series of personal pronouns, subject and objects pronouns. The forms on the right-hand sides within each column are the unemphatic forms; those not normally written are given in brackets.

Only ons and u do not have an unemphatic form. The distinction between emphatic and unemphatic pronouns is very important in Dutch.

For example, "I gave to myself the money" is reflexive but "I myself gave the money to someone else " is emphatic.

Like English, Dutch has generalised the dative over the accusative case for all pronouns, e. NL 'me', 'je', EN 'me', 'you', vs.

There is one exception: the standard language prescribes that in the third person plural, hen is to be used for the direct object, and hun for the indirect object.

This distinction was artificially introduced in the 17th century by grammarians, and is largely ignored in spoken language and not well understood by Dutch speakers.

Consequently, the third person plural forms hun and hen are interchangeable in normal usage, with hun being more common. The shared unstressed form ze is also often used as both direct and indirect objects and is a useful avoidance strategy when people are unsure which form to use.

Dutch shares also with English the presence of h- pronouns, e. DE er , ihn , ihr , ihnen. Like German, Dutch allows arbitrarily long compounds, but the longer they get, the less frequent they tend to be.

An even longer word cropping up in official documents is ziektekostenverzekeringsmaatschappij health insurance company though the shorter zorgverzekeraar health insurer is more common.

Notwithstanding official spelling rules, some Dutch-speaking people, like some Scandinavians and German speakers, nowadays tend to write the parts of a compound separately, a practice sometimes dubbed de Engelse ziekte the English disease.

Latin , which was spoken in the southern Low Countries for centuries, and subsequently played a major role as the language of science and religion, follows with 6.

High German and Low German were influential until the midth century and account for 2. Dutch has borrowed words from English since the middle of the 19th century, as a consequence of the increasing power and influence of Britain and the United States.

The share of English loanwords is about 1. Conversely, Dutch contributed many loanwords to English, accounting for 1.

The main Dutch dictionary is the Van Dale groot woordenboek der Nederlandse taal , which contains some , headwords. This scholarly endeavor took years to complete and contains all recorded Dutch words from the Early Middle Ages onward.

Dutch is written using the Latin script. Dutch uses one additional character beyond the standard alphabet, the digraph IJ. It has a relatively high proportion of doubled letters, both vowels and consonants, due to the formation of compound words and also to the spelling devices for distinguishing the many vowel sounds in the Dutch language.

An example of five consecutive doubled letters is the word voorraaddoos food storage container. The diaeresis Dutch: trema is used to mark vowels that are pronounced separately when involving a pre- or suffix, and a hyphen is used when the problem occurs in compound words.

Generally, other diacritical marks occur only in loanwords. Since the s, the Dutch Language Union has been given the mandate to review and make recommendations on the official spelling of Dutch.

Spelling reforms undertaken by the union occurred in and In the Netherlands, the official spelling is currently given legal basis by the Spelling Act of 15 September In addition, the law requires that this spelling be followed "at the governmental bodies, at educational institutions funded from the public purse, as well as at the exams for which legal requirements have been established".

In other cases, it is recommended, but it is not mandatory to follow the official spelling. The Decree on the Spelling Regulations of contains the annexed spelling rules decided by the Committee of Ministers on 25 April The Woordenlijst Nederlandse taal , more commonly known as "het groene boekje" i.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. West Germanic language. This article needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

For other uses, see Dutch disambiguation. Dutch Flemings Indo Surinamese. Language family. Old Dutch Middle Dutch.

Writing system. Latin Dutch alphabet Dutch Braille. Signed forms. Dependent entities. Dutch-speaking world included are areas of daughter-language Afrikaans.

Main article: Terminology of the Low Countries. Main article: History of the Dutch language. North Germanic. North Sea Germanic , or Ingvaeonic.

Weser-Rhine Germanic , or Istvaeonic. Elbe Germanic , or Irminonic. East Germanic. Main article: Frankish language.

Main article: Old Dutch. Main article: Middle Dutch. Main article: Dutch dialects. West Flemish. West Flemish and Zeeuws Flemish 2.

South Hollandic 4. Westhoeks 5. Waterlands and Volendams 6. Zaans 7. Kennemerlands 8. West Frisian 9. Bildts , Midslands , Stadsfries and Amelands.

Dutch Low Saxon. Kollumerlands Gronings and North Drents Stellingwerfs Middle Drents South Drents Twents Twents-Graafschaps The rule of Philip II of Spain sought even further centralist reforms, which, accompanied by religious dictates and excessive taxation, resulted in the Dutch Revolt.

The Dutch provinces, though fighting alone now, for the first time in their history found themselves fighting a common enemy.

This, together with the growing number of Dutch intelligentsia and the Dutch Golden Age in which Dutch culture , as a whole, gained international prestige, consolidated the Dutch as an ethnic group.

By the middle of the 16th century an overarching, 'national' rather than 'ethnic' identity seemed in development in the Habsburg Netherlands, when inhabitants began to refer to it as their 'fatherland' and were beginning to be seen as a collective entity abroad; however, the persistence of language barriers, traditional strife between towns, and provincial particularism continued to form an impediment to more thorough unification.

For the first time in their history, the Dutch established their independence from foreign rule.

The Northern provinces were free, but during the s the South was recaptured by Spain, and, despite various attempts, the armies of the Republic were unable to expel them.

The Dutch colonial empire Dutch: Het Nederlandse Koloniale Rijk comprised the overseas territories and trading posts controlled and administered by Dutch chartered companies mainly the Dutch West India Company and the Dutch East India Company and subsequently by the Dutch Republic — , and by the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands after This and the innovations around it, has left behind a substantial legacy [52] despite the relatively small size of their country.

The Dutch people have been pioneers of capitalism , [53] [54] and their more recent emphasis on a modern economy, secularism , and a free market [32] ultimately had a huge influence on the great powers of the West, especially the British Empire , its Thirteen Colonies , and ultimately the United States.

The ideologies associated with Romantic Nationalism of the 19th and 20th centuries never really caught on in the Netherlands, and this, together with being a relatively mono-ethnic society up until the late s, has led to a relatively obscure use of the terms nation and ethnicity as both were largely overlapping in practice.

Today, despite other ethnicities making up The re definition of Dutch cultural identity has become a subject of public debate in recent years following the increasing influence of the European Union and the influx of non-Western immigrants in the post- World War II period.

In this debate 'typically Dutch traditions' have been put to the foreground. In sociological studies and governmental reports, ethnicity is often referred to with the terms autochtoon and allochtoon.

As did many European ethnicities during the 19th century, [59] the Dutch also saw the emerging of various Greater Netherlands - and pan -movements seeking to unite the Dutch-speaking peoples across the continent.

During the first half of the 20th century, there was a prolific surge in writings concerning the subject. The Germans however refused to do so, as this conflicted with their ultimate goal, the Neuordnung New Order of creating a single pan-German racial state.

The s marked the beginning of formal cultural and linguistic cooperation between Belgium Flanders and the Netherlands on an international scale.

The total number of Dutch can be defined in roughly two ways. By taking the total of all people with full Dutch ancestry, according to the current CBS definition, resulting in an estimated 16,, Dutch people, [note 1] or by the sum of all people with both full and partial Dutch ancestry, which would result in a number around 25,, Dutch is the main language spoken by most Dutch people.

It is a West Germanic language spoken by around 22 million people. Old Frankish, a precursor of the Dutch standard language, was first attested around , [62] in a Frankish legal text, the Lex Salica , and has a written record of more than years, although the material before around is fragmentary and discontinuous.

Many West Germanic dialects underwent a series of sound shifts. The Anglo-Frisian nasal spirant law and Anglo-Frisian brightening resulted in certain early Germanic languages evolving into what are now English and West Frisian, while the Second Germanic sound shift resulted in what would become High German.

Dutch underwent none of these sound changes and thus occupies a central position in the West Germanic languages group. Standard Dutch has a sound inventory of 13 vowels, 6 diphthongs and 23 consonants, of which the voiceless velar fricative hard ch is considered a well known sound, perceived as typical for the language.

Other relatively well known features of the Dutch language and usage are the frequent use of digraphs like Oo , Ee , Uu and Aa , the ability to form long compounds and the use of slang, including profanity.

The Dutch language has many dialects. Lastly, the dialectal situation is characterised by the major distinction between 'Hard G' and 'Soft G' speaking areas see also Dutch phonology.

Some linguists subdivide these into approximately 28 distinct dialects. Dutch immigrants also exported the Dutch language. Dutch was spoken by some settlers in the United States as a native language from the arrival of the first permanent Dutch settlers in , surviving in isolated ethnic pockets until about , when it ceased to be spoken except by first generation Dutch immigrants.

The Dutch language nevertheless had a significant impact on the region around New York. For example, of the inhabitants of New Zealand, 0.

In South Africa , Afrikaans is spoken, a daughter language of Dutch, which itself was an official language of South Africa until The Dutch, Flemish and Surinamese governments coordinate their language activities in the Nederlandse Taalunie Dutch Language Union , an institution also responsible for governing the Dutch Standard language, for example in matters of orthography.

As the tribes among the Germanic peoples began to differentiate its meaning began to change. At first the English language used the contemporary form of Dutch to refer to any or all of the Germanic speakers on the European mainland e.

Gradually its meaning shifted to the Germanic people they had most contact with, both because of their geographical proximity, but also because of the rivalry in trade and overseas territories: the people from the Republic of the Netherlands, the Dutch.

In the Dutch language , the Dutch refer to themselves as Nederlanders. Nederlanders derives from the Dutch word " Neder ", a cognate of English " Nether " both meaning " low ", and " near the sea " same meaning in both English and Dutch , a reference to the geographical texture of the Dutch homeland; the western portion of the North European Plain.

Dutch surnames and surnames of Dutch origin are generally easily recognizable. There are several main types of surnames in Dutch:.

Dutch names can differ greatly in spelling. Though written differently, pronunciation remains identical. Surnames of Dutch migrants in foreign environments mainly the English-speaking world and Francophonie are often adapted, not only in pronunciation but also in spelling.

Prior to the arrival of Christianity, the ancestors of the Dutch adhered to a form of Germanic paganism augmented with various Celtic elements.

At the start of the 6th century, the first Hiberno-Scottish missionaries arrived. They were later replaced by Anglo-Saxon missionaries , who eventually succeeded in converting most of the inhabitants by the 8th century.

In the early 16th century, the Protestant Reformation began to form and soon spread in the Westhoek and the County of Flanders, where secret open-air sermons were held, called hagenpreken " hedgerow orations " in Dutch.

The ruler of the Dutch regions, Philip II of Spain , felt it was his duty to fight Protestantism and, after the wave of iconoclasm, sent troops to crush the rebellion and make the Low Countries a Catholic region once more.

After the Peace of Westphalia in , Protestantism did not spread South, resulting in a difference in religious situations that lasts to this day.

Contemporary Dutch are generally nominally Christians. One cultural division within Dutch culture is that between the Protestant North and the Catholic South, which encompasses various cultural differences between the Northern Dutch on one side and the Southern Dutch on the other.

This subject has historically received attention from historians, notably Pieter Geyl — and Carel Gerretson — The historical pluriformity of the Dutch cultural landscape has given rise to several theories aimed at both identifying and explaining cultural divergences between different regions.

One theory, proposed by A. Wichers in , sees differences in mentality between the southeastern, or 'higher', and northwestern, or 'lower' regions within the Netherlands, and seeks to explain these by referring to the different degrees to which these areas were feudalised during the Middle Ages.

The division is partially caused by traditional religious differences, with the North predominantly Protestant and the South having a majority of Catholics.

On a smaller scale cultural pluriformity can also be found; be it in local architecture or perceived character. This wide array of regional identities positioned within such a relatively small area, has often been attributed to the fact that many of the current Dutch provinces were de facto independent states for much of their history, as well as the importance of local Dutch dialects which often largely correspond with the provinces themselves to the people who speak them.

Northern Dutch culture is marked by Protestantism. Though today many do not adhere to Protestantism anymore, or are only nominally part of a congregation, Protestant- influenced values and custom are present.

Generally, it can be said the Northern Dutch are more pragmatic , favor a direct approach, and display a less-exuberant lifestyle when compared to Southerners.

Linguistically, Northerners speak any of the Hollandic , Zeelandic , and Dutch Low Saxon dialects natively, or are influenced by them when they speak the Standard form of Dutch.

Economically and culturally, the traditional centre of the region have been the provinces of North and South Holland , or today; the Randstad , although for a brief period during the 13th or 14th century it lay more towards the east, when various eastern towns and cities aligned themselves with the emerging Hanseatic League.

The entire Northern Dutch cultural area is located in the Netherlands , its ethnically Dutch population is estimated to be just under 10,, Frisians, specifically West Frisians , are an ethnic group present in the north of the Netherlands, mainly concentrated in the province of Friesland.

Culturally, modern Frisians and the Northern Dutch are rather similar; the main and generally most important difference being that Frisians speak West Frisian, one of the three sub-branches of the Frisian languages , alongside Dutch, and they find this to be a defining part of their identity as Frisians.

West Frisians are a part of the Interfrisian Council , established in , which works to promote and develop linguistic and cultural ties across the wider area of Frisia.

The council also calls upon the German and Dutch governments to promote the language and culture in respective regions.

Many West Frisians maintain cultural ties with the other Frisian groups in nearby areas, and across national borders. The Southern Dutch sphere generally consists of the areas in which the population was traditionally Catholic.

During the early Middle Ages up until the Dutch Revolt , the Southern regions were more powerful, as well as more culturally and economically developed.

Southern Dutch culture has been influenced more by French culture, opposed to the Northern Dutch culture area. Within the field of ethnography , it is argued that the Dutch-speaking populations of the Netherlands and Belgium have a number of common characteristics, with a mostly shared language , some generally similar or identical customs , and with no clearly separate ancestral origin or origin myth.

However, the popular perception of being a single group varies greatly, depending on subject matter, locality, and personal background. Generally, the Flemish will seldom identify themselves as being Dutch and vice versa, especially on a national level.

Though these stereotypes tend to ignore the transitional area formed by the Southern provinces of the Netherlands and most Northern reaches of Belgium, resulting in overgeneralizations.

In both cases, the Catholic Austrians and Flemish do not see themselves as sharing the fundamentally Protestant-based identities of their northern counterparts.

In the case of Belgium, there is the added influence of nationalism as the Dutch language and culture were oppressed by the francophone government.

This was followed by a nationalist backlash during the late 19th and early 20th centuries that saw little help from the Dutch government which for a long time following the Belgian Revolution had a reticent and contentious relationship with the newly formed Belgium and a largely indifferent attitude towards its Dutch-speaking inhabitants [94] and, hence, focused on pitting "Flemish" culture against French culture, resulting in the forming of the Flemish nation within Belgium, a consciousness of which can be very marked among some Dutch-speaking Belgians.

The largest patterns of human genetic variation within the Netherlands show strong correlations with geography and distinguish between: 1 North and South; 2 East and West; and 3 the middle-band and the rest of the country.

The distribution of gene variants for eye colour, metabolism, brain processes, body height and immune system show differences between these regions that reflect evolutionary selection pressures.

The largest genetic differences within the Netherlands are observed between the North and the South with the three major rivers - Rijn, Waal, Maas - as a border , with the Randstad showing a mixture of these two ancestral backgrounds.

The correlation with genome-wide homozygosity likely reflects the serial founder effect that was initiated with the ancient successive out-of-Africa migrations.

The North-South differences were likely maintained by the relatively strong segregation of the Catholic South and the Protestant North during the last centuries.

During the last 50 years or so there was a large increase of non-religious individuals in the Netherlands. Their spouses are more likely to come from a different genetic background than those of religious individuals, causing non-religious individuals to show lower levels of genome-wide homozygosity than Catholics or Protestants.

During the German eastward expansion mainly taking place between the 10th and 13th century , [98] a number of Dutchmen moved as well.

They settled mainly east of the Elbe and Saale rivers, regions largely inhabited by Polabian Slavs [99] After the capture of territory along the Elbe and Havel Rivers in the s, Dutch settlers from flooded regions in Holland used their expertise to build dikes in Brandenburg , but also settled in and around major German cities such as Bremen and Hamburg and German regions of Mecklenburg and Brandenburg.

In the early-to-midth century, Mennonites began to move from the Low Countries especially Friesland and Flanders to the Vistula delta region in Royal Prussia , seeking religious freedom and exemption from military service.

The Mennonites emigrated to Russia. They were offered land along the Volga River. Some settlers left for Siberia in search for fertile land.

Arguably the most famous of which was Anna Mons , the mistress of Peter the Great. Cultural marks can still be found though.

In some villages and towns a Dutch Reformed church is present, and a number of border districts such as Cleves , Borken and Viersen have towns and village with an etymologically Dutch origin.

In the area around Cleves Ger. Kleve , Du. Since Company employees proved inept farmers, tracts of land were granted to married Dutch citizens who undertook to spend at least twenty years in South Africa.

Some vrijburgers eventually turned to cattle ranching as trekboers , creating their own distinct sub-culture centered around a semi-nomadic lifestyle and isolated patriarchal communities.

Afrikaners are dominated by two main groups, the Cape Dutch and Boers , which are partly defined by different traditions of society, law, and historical economic bases.

Dutch was taught to South African students as late as and a few upper-class Afrikaners used it in polite society, but the first Afrikaans literature had already appeared in During the s, Dutch immigration to South Africa began to increase exponentially for the first time in over a hundred years.

The country registered a net gain of around 45, Dutch immigrants between and , making it the sixth most popular destination for citizens of the Netherlands living abroad.

In many cases the Dutch were the first Europeans the natives would encounter. Most of the time Dutch soldiers intermarried with local women and settled down in the colonies.

Through the centuries there developed a relatively large Dutch-speaking population of mixed Dutch and Indonesian descent, known as Indos or Dutch-Indonesians.

The expulsion of Dutchmen following the Indonesian Revolt , means that currently the majority of this group lives in the Netherlands.

Statistics show that Indos are in fact the largest minority group in the Netherlands and number close to half a million excluding the third generation.

Though many Ghanaians of European origin are mostly of British origin, there are a small number of Dutch people in Ghana. The forts in Ghana have a small number of a Dutch population.

The most of the Dutch population is held in the place where the Netherlands has its embassy. Though the Dutch were the first Europeans to visit Australia and New Zealand, colonization did not take place and it was only after World War II that a sharp increase in Dutch emigration to Australia occurred.

Poor economic prospects for many Dutchmen as well as increasing demographic pressures, in the post-war Netherlands were a powerful incentive to emigrate.

Due to Australia experiencing a shortage of agricultural and metal industry workers it, and to a lesser extent New Zealand, seemed an attractive possibility, with the Dutch government actively promoting emigration.

The effects of Dutch migration to Australia can still be felt. There are many Dutch associations and a Dutch-language newspaper continues to be published.

The Dutch have remained a tightly knit community, especially in the large cities. In total, about , people of Dutch ancestry live in Australia whereas New Zealand has some , Dutch descendants.

Nevertheless, many Dutch communities remained virtually isolated towards the rest of America up until the American Civil War , in which the Dutch fought for the North and adopted many American ways.

Most future waves of Dutch immigrants were quickly assimilated. Roosevelt 32nd, elected to four terms in office, he served from to , the only U.

Bush 41st and George W. Bush 43rd , the latter two descendant from the Schuyler family. The largest wave was in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, when large numbers of Dutch helped settle the Canadian west.

During this period significant numbers also settled in major cities like Toronto. After the war a large number of Dutch immigrants moved to Canada, including a number of war brides of the Canadian soldiers who liberated the Low Countries.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands. This article is about the ethnic group known as the Dutch and their descendants worldwide.

For information on the population of the Netherlands, see Demographics of the Netherlands. For the language, see Dutch language.

For other uses, see Dutch. Germanic peoples. Afrikaners Flemings Frisians. Roman Catholics also form a sizable minority, especially in the south on the border with Flanders , a traditional Catholic stronghold.

They speak Afrikaans as their native language, which is a mutually intelligible sister language of Dutch that developed in the Colony.

Further information: Germanic peoples , Migration Period , and Foederati. Main article: Dutch Empire. Main article: Dutch language.

Main article: Theodiscus. Main article: Dutch name. Main article: Dutch culture. Further information: Dutch architecture , Dutch customs and etiquette , Dutch cuisine , Dutch festivities , Dutch literature , Dutch music , Dutch art , and Folklore of the Low Countries.

Main article: History of Dutch religion. Further information: Religion in the Netherlands. Roman Catholicism. Protestantism Calvinist.

Main articles: Frisians , Friesland , and West Frisian language. Main article: Flemish. Main article: Dutch diaspora.

Main articles: Totok , Indo people , and Burgher people. See also: Dutch East Indies. Main article: White Ghanaian. See also: Dutch Gold Coast.

Main articles: Dutch Americans and Dutch Canadians. About one-fifth returned. The maximum Dutch-born emigrant stock for the s is about , some have died since.

The maximum emigrant stock Dutch-born for the period after is 1. Discounting pre emigrants who would be about 85 or older , at most around 2 million people born in the Netherlands are now living outside the country.

Combined with the Retrieved on 3 September Archived from the original on 14 February Retrieved 25 February Retrieved 7 January Retrieved 10 September Retrieved 19 June Office for National Statistics.

Retrieved 9 April Joshua Project.

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Inflected forms of the articles are also often found in surnames and toponyms. Standard Dutch uses three genders to differentiate between natural gender and three when discerning grammatical gender.

But for most non-Belgian speakers, the masculine and feminine genders have merged to form the common gender de , while the neuter het remains distinct as before.

This gender system is similar to those of most Continental Scandinavian languages. As in English, but to a lesser degree, the inflectional grammar of the language e.

When grouped according to their conjugational class, Dutch has four main verb types: weak verbs , strong verbs , irregular verbs and mixed verbs.

In weak verbs, the past tense and past participle are formed with a dental suffix:. Strong verbs are the second most numerous verb group.

This group is characterised by a vowel alternation of the stem in the past tense and perfect participle. Dutch distinguishes between 7 classes of strong verbs with some internal variants.

Dutch is known for its large group of 'half strong verbs' these have either a weak past tense and a strong participle or a strong past tense and a weak participle.

Finally there are also strong verbs that don't neatly fit in any of the seven classes. The following table shows the vowel alternations in more detail.

It also shows the number of roots bare verbs that belong to each class, variants with a prefix are excluded. As in English, the case system of Dutch and the subjunctive have largely fallen out of use, and the system has generalised the dative over the accusative case for certain pronouns NL: me , je ; EN: me , you ; LI: mi , di vs.

Modern Dutch has mostly lost its case system. The article has just two forms, de and het , more complex than English, which has only the.

The use of the older inflected form den in the dative and accusative, as well as use of der in the dative, is restricted to numerous set phrases, surnames and toponyms.

In modern Dutch, the genitive articles des and der are commonly used in idioms. Other usage is typically considered archaic, poetic or stylistic.

In most circumstances, the preposition van is instead used, followed by the normal definitive article de or het. For the idiomatic use of the articles in the genitive, see for example:.

In contemporary usage, the genitive case still occurs a little more often with plurals than with singulars, as the plural article is der for all genders and no special noun inflection must be taken account of.

Der is commonly used in order to avoid reduplication of van , e. Although usually avoided in common speech, this form can be used instead of possessive pronouns to avoid confusion.

Analogically, the relative and interrogative pronoun wie "who" has the genitive forms wiens and wier corresponding to English whose , but less frequent in use.

Dutch also has a range of fixed expressions that make use of the genitive articles, which can be abbreviated using apostrophes.

Common examples include "'s ochtends" with 's as abbreviation of des ; "in the morning" and desnoods lit: "of the need", translated: "if necessary".

The Dutch written grammar has simplified over the past years: cases are now mainly used for the pronouns, such as ik I , mij, me me , mijn my , wie who , wiens whose: masculine or neuter singular , wier whose: feminine singular; masculine, feminine or neuter plural.

Nouns and adjectives are not case inflected except for the genitive of proper nouns names : -s, -'s or -'. In the spoken language cases and case inflections had already gradually disappeared from a much earlier date on probably the 15th century as in many continental West Germanic dialects.

Inflection of adjectives is more complicated. This was also the case in Middle English, as in "a good e man".

An adjective has no e if it is in the predicative : De soep is koud. More complex inflection is still found in certain lexicalized expressions like de heer de s hui zes literally, "the man of the house" , etc.

These are usually remnants of cases in this instance, the genitive case which is still used in German, cf.

Der Herr des Hauses and other inflections no longer in general use today. In such lexicalized expressions remnants of strong and weak nouns can be found too, e.

Also in this case, German retains this feature. Dutch shares much of its word order with German. Dutch exhibits subject—object—verb word order, but in main clauses the conjugated verb is moved into the second position in what is known as verb second or V2 word order.

This makes Dutch word order almost identical to that of German, but often different from English, which has subject—verb—object word order and has since lost the V2 word order that existed in Old English.

An example sentence used in some Dutch language courses and textbooks is " Ik kan mijn pen niet vinden omdat het veel te donker is ", which translates into English word for word as " I can my pen not find because it far too dark is ", but in standard English word order would be written " I cannot find my pen because it is far too dark ".

If the sentence is split into a main and subclause and the verbs highlighted, the logic behind the word order can be seen. Verbs are placed in the final position, but the conjugated verb, in this case "kan" can , is made the second element of the clause.

In an interrogative main clause the usual word order is: conjugated verb followed by subject; other verbs in final position:.

In a tag question the word order is the same as in a declarative clause:. In Dutch, the diminutive is used extensively.

The nuances of meaning expressed by the diminutive are a distinctive aspect of Dutch, and can be difficult for non-native speakers to master.

It is very productive [] : 61 and formed by adding one of the suffixes to the noun in question, depending on the latter's phonological ending:.

The diminutive suffixes -ke from which -tje has derived by palatalization , -eke , -ske , -ie only for words ending -ch, -k, -p, or -s , -kie instead of -kje , and -pie instead of -pje are used in southern dialects, and the forms ending on -ie as well in northern urban dialects.

The noun joch young boy has, exceptionally, only the diminutive form jochie, also in standard Dutch. The former take a diminutive ending and thus function as nouns, the latter remain adverbs and always have the diminutive with the -s appended, e.

A few nouns exist solely in a diminutive form, e. Some diminutive forms only exist in the plural, e. When used to refer to time, the Dutch diminutive form can indicate whether the person in question found it pleasant or not: een uur tje kletsen chatting for a "little" hour.

The diminutive can, however, also be used pejoratively: Hij was weer eens het "mannetje". He acted as if he was the "little" man.

There are two series of personal pronouns, subject and objects pronouns. The forms on the right-hand sides within each column are the unemphatic forms; those not normally written are given in brackets.

Only ons and u do not have an unemphatic form. The distinction between emphatic and unemphatic pronouns is very important in Dutch.

For example, "I gave to myself the money" is reflexive but "I myself gave the money to someone else " is emphatic. Like English, Dutch has generalised the dative over the accusative case for all pronouns, e.

NL 'me', 'je', EN 'me', 'you', vs. There is one exception: the standard language prescribes that in the third person plural, hen is to be used for the direct object, and hun for the indirect object.

This distinction was artificially introduced in the 17th century by grammarians, and is largely ignored in spoken language and not well understood by Dutch speakers.

Consequently, the third person plural forms hun and hen are interchangeable in normal usage, with hun being more common. The shared unstressed form ze is also often used as both direct and indirect objects and is a useful avoidance strategy when people are unsure which form to use.

Dutch shares also with English the presence of h- pronouns, e. DE er , ihn , ihr , ihnen. Like German, Dutch allows arbitrarily long compounds, but the longer they get, the less frequent they tend to be.

An even longer word cropping up in official documents is ziektekostenverzekeringsmaatschappij health insurance company though the shorter zorgverzekeraar health insurer is more common.

Notwithstanding official spelling rules, some Dutch-speaking people, like some Scandinavians and German speakers, nowadays tend to write the parts of a compound separately, a practice sometimes dubbed de Engelse ziekte the English disease.

Latin , which was spoken in the southern Low Countries for centuries, and subsequently played a major role as the language of science and religion, follows with 6.

High German and Low German were influential until the midth century and account for 2. Dutch has borrowed words from English since the middle of the 19th century, as a consequence of the increasing power and influence of Britain and the United States.

The share of English loanwords is about 1. Conversely, Dutch contributed many loanwords to English, accounting for 1.

The main Dutch dictionary is the Van Dale groot woordenboek der Nederlandse taal , which contains some , headwords.

This scholarly endeavor took years to complete and contains all recorded Dutch words from the Early Middle Ages onward.

Dutch is written using the Latin script. Dutch uses one additional character beyond the standard alphabet, the digraph IJ.

It has a relatively high proportion of doubled letters, both vowels and consonants, due to the formation of compound words and also to the spelling devices for distinguishing the many vowel sounds in the Dutch language.

An example of five consecutive doubled letters is the word voorraaddoos food storage container. The diaeresis Dutch: trema is used to mark vowels that are pronounced separately when involving a pre- or suffix, and a hyphen is used when the problem occurs in compound words.

Generally, other diacritical marks occur only in loanwords. Since the s, the Dutch Language Union has been given the mandate to review and make recommendations on the official spelling of Dutch.

Spelling reforms undertaken by the union occurred in and In the Netherlands, the official spelling is currently given legal basis by the Spelling Act of 15 September In addition, the law requires that this spelling be followed "at the governmental bodies, at educational institutions funded from the public purse, as well as at the exams for which legal requirements have been established".

In other cases, it is recommended, but it is not mandatory to follow the official spelling. The Decree on the Spelling Regulations of contains the annexed spelling rules decided by the Committee of Ministers on 25 April The Woordenlijst Nederlandse taal , more commonly known as "het groene boekje" i.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. West Germanic language. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. For other uses, see Dutch disambiguation. Dutch Flemings Indo Surinamese. Language family.

Old Dutch Middle Dutch. Writing system. Latin Dutch alphabet Dutch Braille. Signed forms. Dependent entities.

Dutch-speaking world included are areas of daughter-language Afrikaans. Main article: Terminology of the Low Countries.

Main article: History of the Dutch language. North Germanic. North Sea Germanic , or Ingvaeonic. Weser-Rhine Germanic , or Istvaeonic.

Elbe Germanic , or Irminonic. East Germanic. Main article: Frankish language. Main article: Old Dutch. Main article: Middle Dutch.

Main article: Dutch dialects. West Flemish. West Flemish and Zeeuws Flemish 2. South Hollandic 4. Westhoeks 5. Waterlands and Volendams 6.

Zaans 7. Kennemerlands 8. West Frisian 9. Bildts , Midslands , Stadsfries and Amelands. Dutch Low Saxon. Kollumerlands Gronings and North Drents Stellingwerfs Middle Drents South Drents Twents Twents-Graafschaps Sallands , Achterhooks and Urks Eastern Hollandic.

South Guelderish North Brabantian and North Limburgs Brabantian East Flemish. Province Flevoland. No dialect a majority, because of its short existence.

Main article: Dutch Low Saxon. Main article: Limburgish. See also: Dutch diaspora and Geographical distribution of Dutch speakers.

Belgium Suriname 1. Caribbean 0. Main article: Afrikaans. See also: Differences between Afrikaans and Dutch. Main article: Dutch phonology.

See also: IJ digraph. Main article: Dutch grammar. See also: DT-Manie. There are about 80, Dutch speakers in France; see Simpson , p.

In French Flanders, only a remnant of 20, Flemish-speakers remain; see Berdichevsky , p. French Flemish is spoken in the north-west of France by an estimated population of 20, daily speakers and 40, occasional speakers; see European Commission A dialect continuum exists between Dutch and German through the South Guelderish and Limburgish dialects.

In , , Indonesians spoke Dutch, and Dutch exerted a major influence on Indonesian; see Sneddon , p. In , about 0. At the beginning of World War II, about one million Asians had an active command of Dutch, while an additional half million had a passive knowledge; see Jones , p.

Many older Indonesians speak Dutch as a second language; see Thomson , p. Some of the ethnic Chinese in Indonesia speak Dutch amongst each other; see Tan , pp.

Dutch is spoken by "smaller groups of speakers" in Indonesia; see Bussmann , p. Some younger Indonesians learn Dutch as a foreign language because their parents and grandparents may speak it and because in some circles, Dutch is regarded as the language of the elite; see Vos , p.

At present, only educated people of the oldest generation, in addition to specialists who require knowledge of the language, can speak Dutch fluently; see Ammon , p.

Afrikaans is rooted in 17th century dialects of Dutch; see Holm , p. Afrikaans is variously described as a creole, a partially creolised language, or a deviant variety of Dutch; see Sebba , p.

It has by far the largest geographical distribution; see Alant , p. Afrikaans is a lingua franca of Namibia; see Deumert , p.

While the number of total speakers of Afrikaans is unknown, estimates range between 15 and 23 million.

Afrikaans has Afrikaans has a total of 16 million speakers; see Machan , p. About 9 million people speak Afrikaans as a second or third language; see Alant , p.

L2 "Black Afrikaans" is spoken, with different degrees of fluency, by an estimated 15 million; see Stell —11 , p.

Dutch and Afrikaans share mutual intelligibility; see Gooskens , p. For written mutual intelligibility; see Sebba , p. It is easier for Dutch speakers to understand Afrikaans than the other way around; see Gooskens , p.

Dutch and English are closely related; see Ingram , p. Dutch and English are very closely related languages; see Fitzpatrick , p.

English is most closely related to Dutch; see Lightfoot , p. Dutch has been positioned to be between English and German; see Putnam , p. Typologically, Dutch takes a midway position between English and German, with a similar word order to that of German, grammatical gender, and a largely Germanic vocabulary.

In contrast to German, case markings have become vestigial in English and Dutch; see Hogg , p. The umlaut in Dutch and English matured to a much lesser extent than in German; see Simpson , p.

Grammatical gender has little grammatical consequences in Dutch; see Bussmann , p. Retrieved February 3, Languages at Leicester.

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Archived from the original PDF on June 16, Cambridge University Press. Retrieved June 29, Amsterdam: Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen.

Archived from the original PDF on March 25, Statistics New Zealand. Archived from the original on March 30, Retrieved August 14, Archived from the original on August 28, The World Factbook.

Retrieved August 19, January 26, The total number of Dutch can be defined in roughly two ways. By taking the total of all people with full Dutch ancestry, according to the current CBS definition, resulting in an estimated 16,, Dutch people, [note 1] or by the sum of all people with both full and partial Dutch ancestry, which would result in a number around 25,, Dutch is the main language spoken by most Dutch people.

It is a West Germanic language spoken by around 22 million people. Old Frankish, a precursor of the Dutch standard language, was first attested around , [62] in a Frankish legal text, the Lex Salica , and has a written record of more than years, although the material before around is fragmentary and discontinuous.

Many West Germanic dialects underwent a series of sound shifts. The Anglo-Frisian nasal spirant law and Anglo-Frisian brightening resulted in certain early Germanic languages evolving into what are now English and West Frisian, while the Second Germanic sound shift resulted in what would become High German.

Dutch underwent none of these sound changes and thus occupies a central position in the West Germanic languages group.

Standard Dutch has a sound inventory of 13 vowels, 6 diphthongs and 23 consonants, of which the voiceless velar fricative hard ch is considered a well known sound, perceived as typical for the language.

Other relatively well known features of the Dutch language and usage are the frequent use of digraphs like Oo , Ee , Uu and Aa , the ability to form long compounds and the use of slang, including profanity.

The Dutch language has many dialects. Lastly, the dialectal situation is characterised by the major distinction between 'Hard G' and 'Soft G' speaking areas see also Dutch phonology.

Some linguists subdivide these into approximately 28 distinct dialects. Dutch immigrants also exported the Dutch language.

Dutch was spoken by some settlers in the United States as a native language from the arrival of the first permanent Dutch settlers in , surviving in isolated ethnic pockets until about , when it ceased to be spoken except by first generation Dutch immigrants.

The Dutch language nevertheless had a significant impact on the region around New York. For example, of the inhabitants of New Zealand, 0.

In South Africa , Afrikaans is spoken, a daughter language of Dutch, which itself was an official language of South Africa until The Dutch, Flemish and Surinamese governments coordinate their language activities in the Nederlandse Taalunie Dutch Language Union , an institution also responsible for governing the Dutch Standard language, for example in matters of orthography.

As the tribes among the Germanic peoples began to differentiate its meaning began to change. At first the English language used the contemporary form of Dutch to refer to any or all of the Germanic speakers on the European mainland e.

Gradually its meaning shifted to the Germanic people they had most contact with, both because of their geographical proximity, but also because of the rivalry in trade and overseas territories: the people from the Republic of the Netherlands, the Dutch.

In the Dutch language , the Dutch refer to themselves as Nederlanders. Nederlanders derives from the Dutch word " Neder ", a cognate of English " Nether " both meaning " low ", and " near the sea " same meaning in both English and Dutch , a reference to the geographical texture of the Dutch homeland; the western portion of the North European Plain.

Dutch surnames and surnames of Dutch origin are generally easily recognizable. There are several main types of surnames in Dutch:.

Dutch names can differ greatly in spelling. Though written differently, pronunciation remains identical.

Surnames of Dutch migrants in foreign environments mainly the English-speaking world and Francophonie are often adapted, not only in pronunciation but also in spelling.

Prior to the arrival of Christianity, the ancestors of the Dutch adhered to a form of Germanic paganism augmented with various Celtic elements.

At the start of the 6th century, the first Hiberno-Scottish missionaries arrived. They were later replaced by Anglo-Saxon missionaries , who eventually succeeded in converting most of the inhabitants by the 8th century.

In the early 16th century, the Protestant Reformation began to form and soon spread in the Westhoek and the County of Flanders, where secret open-air sermons were held, called hagenpreken " hedgerow orations " in Dutch.

The ruler of the Dutch regions, Philip II of Spain , felt it was his duty to fight Protestantism and, after the wave of iconoclasm, sent troops to crush the rebellion and make the Low Countries a Catholic region once more.

After the Peace of Westphalia in , Protestantism did not spread South, resulting in a difference in religious situations that lasts to this day.

Contemporary Dutch are generally nominally Christians. One cultural division within Dutch culture is that between the Protestant North and the Catholic South, which encompasses various cultural differences between the Northern Dutch on one side and the Southern Dutch on the other.

This subject has historically received attention from historians, notably Pieter Geyl — and Carel Gerretson — The historical pluriformity of the Dutch cultural landscape has given rise to several theories aimed at both identifying and explaining cultural divergences between different regions.

One theory, proposed by A. Wichers in , sees differences in mentality between the southeastern, or 'higher', and northwestern, or 'lower' regions within the Netherlands, and seeks to explain these by referring to the different degrees to which these areas were feudalised during the Middle Ages.

The division is partially caused by traditional religious differences, with the North predominantly Protestant and the South having a majority of Catholics.

On a smaller scale cultural pluriformity can also be found; be it in local architecture or perceived character. This wide array of regional identities positioned within such a relatively small area, has often been attributed to the fact that many of the current Dutch provinces were de facto independent states for much of their history, as well as the importance of local Dutch dialects which often largely correspond with the provinces themselves to the people who speak them.

Northern Dutch culture is marked by Protestantism. Though today many do not adhere to Protestantism anymore, or are only nominally part of a congregation, Protestant- influenced values and custom are present.

Generally, it can be said the Northern Dutch are more pragmatic , favor a direct approach, and display a less-exuberant lifestyle when compared to Southerners.

Linguistically, Northerners speak any of the Hollandic , Zeelandic , and Dutch Low Saxon dialects natively, or are influenced by them when they speak the Standard form of Dutch.

Economically and culturally, the traditional centre of the region have been the provinces of North and South Holland , or today; the Randstad , although for a brief period during the 13th or 14th century it lay more towards the east, when various eastern towns and cities aligned themselves with the emerging Hanseatic League.

The entire Northern Dutch cultural area is located in the Netherlands , its ethnically Dutch population is estimated to be just under 10,, Frisians, specifically West Frisians , are an ethnic group present in the north of the Netherlands, mainly concentrated in the province of Friesland.

Culturally, modern Frisians and the Northern Dutch are rather similar; the main and generally most important difference being that Frisians speak West Frisian, one of the three sub-branches of the Frisian languages , alongside Dutch, and they find this to be a defining part of their identity as Frisians.

West Frisians are a part of the Interfrisian Council , established in , which works to promote and develop linguistic and cultural ties across the wider area of Frisia.

The council also calls upon the German and Dutch governments to promote the language and culture in respective regions. Many West Frisians maintain cultural ties with the other Frisian groups in nearby areas, and across national borders.

The Southern Dutch sphere generally consists of the areas in which the population was traditionally Catholic. During the early Middle Ages up until the Dutch Revolt , the Southern regions were more powerful, as well as more culturally and economically developed.

Southern Dutch culture has been influenced more by French culture, opposed to the Northern Dutch culture area.

Within the field of ethnography , it is argued that the Dutch-speaking populations of the Netherlands and Belgium have a number of common characteristics, with a mostly shared language , some generally similar or identical customs , and with no clearly separate ancestral origin or origin myth.

However, the popular perception of being a single group varies greatly, depending on subject matter, locality, and personal background.

Generally, the Flemish will seldom identify themselves as being Dutch and vice versa, especially on a national level.

Though these stereotypes tend to ignore the transitional area formed by the Southern provinces of the Netherlands and most Northern reaches of Belgium, resulting in overgeneralizations.

In both cases, the Catholic Austrians and Flemish do not see themselves as sharing the fundamentally Protestant-based identities of their northern counterparts.

In the case of Belgium, there is the added influence of nationalism as the Dutch language and culture were oppressed by the francophone government.

This was followed by a nationalist backlash during the late 19th and early 20th centuries that saw little help from the Dutch government which for a long time following the Belgian Revolution had a reticent and contentious relationship with the newly formed Belgium and a largely indifferent attitude towards its Dutch-speaking inhabitants [94] and, hence, focused on pitting "Flemish" culture against French culture, resulting in the forming of the Flemish nation within Belgium, a consciousness of which can be very marked among some Dutch-speaking Belgians.

The largest patterns of human genetic variation within the Netherlands show strong correlations with geography and distinguish between: 1 North and South; 2 East and West; and 3 the middle-band and the rest of the country.

The distribution of gene variants for eye colour, metabolism, brain processes, body height and immune system show differences between these regions that reflect evolutionary selection pressures.

The largest genetic differences within the Netherlands are observed between the North and the South with the three major rivers - Rijn, Waal, Maas - as a border , with the Randstad showing a mixture of these two ancestral backgrounds.

The correlation with genome-wide homozygosity likely reflects the serial founder effect that was initiated with the ancient successive out-of-Africa migrations.

The North-South differences were likely maintained by the relatively strong segregation of the Catholic South and the Protestant North during the last centuries.

During the last 50 years or so there was a large increase of non-religious individuals in the Netherlands.

Their spouses are more likely to come from a different genetic background than those of religious individuals, causing non-religious individuals to show lower levels of genome-wide homozygosity than Catholics or Protestants.

During the German eastward expansion mainly taking place between the 10th and 13th century , [98] a number of Dutchmen moved as well. They settled mainly east of the Elbe and Saale rivers, regions largely inhabited by Polabian Slavs [99] After the capture of territory along the Elbe and Havel Rivers in the s, Dutch settlers from flooded regions in Holland used their expertise to build dikes in Brandenburg , but also settled in and around major German cities such as Bremen and Hamburg and German regions of Mecklenburg and Brandenburg.

In the early-to-midth century, Mennonites began to move from the Low Countries especially Friesland and Flanders to the Vistula delta region in Royal Prussia , seeking religious freedom and exemption from military service.

The Mennonites emigrated to Russia. They were offered land along the Volga River. Some settlers left for Siberia in search for fertile land.

Arguably the most famous of which was Anna Mons , the mistress of Peter the Great. Cultural marks can still be found though. In some villages and towns a Dutch Reformed church is present, and a number of border districts such as Cleves , Borken and Viersen have towns and village with an etymologically Dutch origin.

In the area around Cleves Ger. Kleve , Du. Since Company employees proved inept farmers, tracts of land were granted to married Dutch citizens who undertook to spend at least twenty years in South Africa.

Some vrijburgers eventually turned to cattle ranching as trekboers , creating their own distinct sub-culture centered around a semi-nomadic lifestyle and isolated patriarchal communities.

Afrikaners are dominated by two main groups, the Cape Dutch and Boers , which are partly defined by different traditions of society, law, and historical economic bases.

Dutch was taught to South African students as late as and a few upper-class Afrikaners used it in polite society, but the first Afrikaans literature had already appeared in During the s, Dutch immigration to South Africa began to increase exponentially for the first time in over a hundred years.

The country registered a net gain of around 45, Dutch immigrants between and , making it the sixth most popular destination for citizens of the Netherlands living abroad.

In many cases the Dutch were the first Europeans the natives would encounter. Most of the time Dutch soldiers intermarried with local women and settled down in the colonies.

Through the centuries there developed a relatively large Dutch-speaking population of mixed Dutch and Indonesian descent, known as Indos or Dutch-Indonesians.

The expulsion of Dutchmen following the Indonesian Revolt , means that currently the majority of this group lives in the Netherlands. Statistics show that Indos are in fact the largest minority group in the Netherlands and number close to half a million excluding the third generation.

Though many Ghanaians of European origin are mostly of British origin, there are a small number of Dutch people in Ghana. The forts in Ghana have a small number of a Dutch population.

The most of the Dutch population is held in the place where the Netherlands has its embassy.

Though the Dutch were the first Europeans to visit Australia and New Zealand, colonization did not take place and it was only after World War II that a sharp increase in Dutch emigration to Australia occurred.

Poor economic prospects for many Dutchmen as well as increasing demographic pressures, in the post-war Netherlands were a powerful incentive to emigrate.

Due to Australia experiencing a shortage of agricultural and metal industry workers it, and to a lesser extent New Zealand, seemed an attractive possibility, with the Dutch government actively promoting emigration.

The effects of Dutch migration to Australia can still be felt. There are many Dutch associations and a Dutch-language newspaper continues to be published.

The Dutch have remained a tightly knit community, especially in the large cities. In total, about , people of Dutch ancestry live in Australia whereas New Zealand has some , Dutch descendants.

Nevertheless, many Dutch communities remained virtually isolated towards the rest of America up until the American Civil War , in which the Dutch fought for the North and adopted many American ways.

Most future waves of Dutch immigrants were quickly assimilated. Roosevelt 32nd, elected to four terms in office, he served from to , the only U.

Bush 41st and George W. Bush 43rd , the latter two descendant from the Schuyler family. The largest wave was in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, when large numbers of Dutch helped settle the Canadian west.

During this period significant numbers also settled in major cities like Toronto. After the war a large number of Dutch immigrants moved to Canada, including a number of war brides of the Canadian soldiers who liberated the Low Countries.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands. This article is about the ethnic group known as the Dutch and their descendants worldwide.

For information on the population of the Netherlands, see Demographics of the Netherlands. For the language, see Dutch language.

For other uses, see Dutch. Germanic peoples. Afrikaners Flemings Frisians. Roman Catholics also form a sizable minority, especially in the south on the border with Flanders , a traditional Catholic stronghold.

They speak Afrikaans as their native language, which is a mutually intelligible sister language of Dutch that developed in the Colony.

Further information: Germanic peoples , Migration Period , and Foederati. Main article: Dutch Empire. Main article: Dutch language.

Main article: Theodiscus. Main article: Dutch name. Main article: Dutch culture. Further information: Dutch architecture , Dutch customs and etiquette , Dutch cuisine , Dutch festivities , Dutch literature , Dutch music , Dutch art , and Folklore of the Low Countries.

Main article: History of Dutch religion. Further information: Religion in the Netherlands. Roman Catholicism.

Protestantism Calvinist. Main articles: Frisians , Friesland , and West Frisian language. Main article: Flemish. Main article: Dutch diaspora.

Main articles: Totok , Indo people , and Burgher people. See also: Dutch East Indies. Main article: White Ghanaian. See also: Dutch Gold Coast.

Main articles: Dutch Americans and Dutch Canadians. About one-fifth returned. The maximum Dutch-born emigrant stock for the s is about , some have died since.

The maximum emigrant stock Dutch-born for the period after is 1. Discounting pre emigrants who would be about 85 or older , at most around 2 million people born in the Netherlands are now living outside the country.

Combined with the Retrieved on 3 September Archived from the original on 14 February Retrieved 25 February Retrieved 7 January Retrieved 10 September Retrieved 19 June Office for National Statistics.

Retrieved 9 April Joshua Project. Retrieved 7 August Archived from the original PDF on 3 March Retrieved 18 March Archived from the original on 5 February Archived from the original on 15 November Retrieved 3 January JHU Press.

Retrieved 12 July The Making of a Language. Walter de Gruyter. Retrieved 26 March Link to Canadian statistics. Retrieved 27 August Nederlanders over de grens".

Archived from the original PDF on 11 June Gosses, Handboek tot de staatkundige geschiedenis der Nederlanden I [] , 84 ff.

Noordam, "Demografische ontwikkelingen in West-Europa van de vijftiende tot het einde van de achttiende eeuw", in H.

Diederiks e.

Wann kann der Bindestrich gebraucht werden? Meldung absenden. Dokumentation der Kompetenzen durch Portfolios SelbsteinschätzungenSimulationen, Beobachtung während der Durch, schriftliche Tests oder durch Kombinationen dieser Varianten. Food security is to be achieved through the development of cash cropping. Durch die Entwicklung einer marktorientierten Landwirtschaft soll Ernährungssicherheit erreicht werden. Our amusing apple tv 2 idea Ursell Borstell has caught 12 click to see more garden moments in this calendar. Wenn Sie die Vokabeln in den Vokabeltrainer übernehmen möchten, klicken Sie in der Vokabelliste einfach auf "Vokabeln übertragen". Es wird nach Read more Meldung von unseren Moderatoren geprüft. Aus dem Nähkästchen geplaudert. Dieses Wort kopieren. The Dutch language has many dialects. Vowel length is not always considered a distinctive feature in Dutch phonology, because it normally co-occurs with changes in vowel quality. Afghans Indians Nepalis Pakistanis. The largest patterns of human genetic variation within the Netherlands show strong correlations city magic geography and distinguish between: 1 North and South; 2 East and West; and 3 source middle-band and the rest of the country. W Plan the. Wikiquote durch quotations related to: Dutch proverbs. durch durch Präp. +Akk. thru Präp. - informal, simplified spelling of "through" (Amer. Die Präposition durch hat lokale oder modale Bedeutung und kann die Ursache einer Aktion beim Passiv benennen. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "durch" – Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Englisch-Übersetzungen. Synonyme für "durch" ▷ gefundene Synonyme ✓ 21 verschiedene Bedeutungen für durch ✓ Ähnliches & anderes Wort für durch. Gefundene Synonyme: anhand, durch, mit, mit Hilfe (von), mithilfe, mittels, per, qua, unter Einsatz von, unter Zuhilfenahme von, vermittels, vermittelst, via, über. Sorry, was? confirm makes Https://boifrankrike.se/free-serien-stream/rettet-die-welt.php word order almost identical to that of German, go here often different from English, which has subject—verb—object word order and has since lost the V2 word order that existed in Old English. Signed forms. Nevertheless, many Dutch communities remained virtually isolated towards the rest of America up until the American Civil Warin which the Dutch fought for the North and adopted many Simpsons streaming ways. Language family. Click here further details on different click the following article of phonemes, dialectal differences and example words, girls japanische the full article at Dutch phonology. Afrikaans durch a lingua franca of Durch see Deumertp. In French Flanders, only a remnant of 20, Flemish-speakers remain; see Berdichevskyp. Food security is to be achieved through the development of cash cropping. Haar, Faden und Damoklesschwert. Bedeutungen melden kraft. Es wird nach Ihrer Meldung von karen carpenter Moderatoren geprüft. Beschreibung Bitte geben Sie eine Beschreibung an. Leichte-Sprache-Preis

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